The Council of Science Editors (CSE) offers three systems of documentation. In all three systems, a reference list at the end of the paper provides all the information your reader needs to track down your sources. In-text references in your sentences show your reader which sources support the claims and information of that sentence.
The systems differ in the details of how they format in-text references and how they organize the reference list. For more information about each system, click on the appropriate link below:
Example from Charkowski (2012):
Example from Newbury (2013):
Example from Wattiaux (2005):
For a class paper, check to see if your instructor prefers one of these systems. For a journal article, check the journal's instructions to authors to find out which system to use.
For a full description of these systems and the philosophy behind them, consult Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, the Seventh Edition (2006) of the CSE manual.
References for books follow the order Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent.
[A book's extent in number of pages ("508 p." in the example above) is optional but provides useful information.]
References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher; year. Page numbers for that chapter.
References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Date;volume(issue):pages.
To save space, CSE suggests that writers abbreviate the titles of journals in according to the ISO 4 standard, which you can read about at ISSN. You can also search ISSN's List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Reference list information for articles found online adds a medium designator—[Internet], including the brackets—at the end of the title of the journal, as well as a citation date and a URL. The CSE Manual does not explicitly require this information if the online content is identical to the print content.
If a conference paper is subsequently published, either in the proceedings of the conference or in a journal, cite as a chapter in a book or as an article in a journal. Otherwise, cite as follows.