MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is commonly used in the humanities, particularly in language and literature research. The 9th edition of The MLA Handbook is the authoritative source for MLA style and citation. Additional resources on MLA style are listed below.
Citation is a two-part process that includes both in-text (or parenthetical) citations and a works cited list. Each in-text citation must be on your works cited page and vice versa. Any source material that is not your own or is not common knowledge must be cited.
Journal Article from a Database:
Author's Last name, First name."Title of Article." Name of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Date, pp. Name of Database. DOI or permalink.
Note: If a DOI--digital object identifier-is available, use the DOI instead of the URL.
Author's Last name, First name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
eBook from a Database:
Author's Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Date. Name of Database, DOI or permalink.
Journal article with DOI
Ball, T. M., Shapiro, D. E., Monheim, C. J., & Weydert, J. A. (2003). A pilot study of the use of guided imagery for the treatment of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Clinical Pediatrics, 42(6), 527–532. https://doi.org/10.1177/000992280304200607
Journal article without a DOI and not from a database
Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31
Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/on-video-games-and-storytelling-an-interview-with-tom-bissell
Book with no DOI
Jacobson, E. (1938). Progressive relaxation (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.
Book with DOI
Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. http://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000
Chapter in an edited book without a DOI
Weinstock, R., Leon, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.
Webpage on a website with an individual author
Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/self-compassion-can-improve-your-resiliency/art-20267193
Webpage on a website with a group author
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related compilations. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/highrisk/index.htm