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Cambridge Educational, 1998, 8 minutes
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex. The wording of the 19th Amendment is as unflinchingly clear as the obstacles to its passage-sexism; cultural, political, and social prejudices; and even timidity on the part of women reluctant to challenge the status quo. This program examines the struggle of the women's suffrage movement and its role in the eventual passage of the 19th Amendment. Legal experts discuss the amendment as a constitutional document and explain the changes it brought about in American life.
Cambridge Educational, 2003, 12 minutes
For 72 years, from 1848 -1920, generations of women - from every state and every party, of every race and every religion - fought for the right to vote. The 19th Amendment was introduced in Congress 42 years before the House and Senate could muster the 2/3 majority to pass it. And that vote was just the beginning of another round of state battles - the final battle for ratification. This film, covering 72 years of suffrage history, describes the struggle the suffragists faced. Would women gain the right to vote before the 1920 presidential election? Which state would be the "perfect 36" to ratify and make the 19th Amendment law? The answer came when Tennessee, the last state that could possibly ratify, convened in special session on Aug. 9, 1920. This final battle to include women in the U.S. Constitution was especially fierce. Suffrage supporters wore the yellow rose while the "antis" countered with red roses. On August 18, the day of the final House vote.
PBS Video, 1995, 109 minutes
Documents the 70-year struggle for women's suffrage which culminated in the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. It illuminates the alliances, infighting, betrayals and defeats that paved the way for victory in the battle for women's right to vote. Historical footage is enhanced with vocal performances, and interviews with historians provide the viewer with both current and historical perspectives.