It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
The Optical Society promotes and delivers scientific and technical information on optics and photonics worldwide that is authoritative, accessible and archived.
Since 1916, OSA has been the world’s leading champion for optics and photonics, uniting and educating scientists, engineers, educators, technicians and business leaders worldwide.
OSA currently services 432,000 customers and 22,000 members from more than 100 countries.
SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, was founded in 1955 to advance light-based technologies.
Serving 255,000 constituents from 183 countries, the not-for-profit society advances emerging technologies through interdisciplinary information exchange, continuing education, publications, patent precedent, and career and professional growth.
SPIE annually organizes and sponsors approximately 25 major technical forums, exhibitions, and education programs in North America, Europe, Asia, and the South Pacific, where more than 35,000 scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs showcase the latest innovations across a wide range of technologies.
With an active portfolio of nearly 1,300 standards and projects under development, IEEE is a leading developer of industry standards in a broad range of technologies that drive the functionality, capabilities, and interoperability of a wide range of products and services, transforming how people live, work, and communicate.