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NGR 6801 - Research Methods: 1. APA

APA Research Guide

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APA Style Guide

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APA 6th ed.

Check with your professor for any individual preferences in citation styles, particularly journal articles from a database. This information comes from   the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition.

Online Resources


Journal Articles

With DOI assigned: A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric assigned to an article.

Calcagno, J., Crosta, P., Bailey, T., & Jenkins, D. (2007). Stepping stones to a degree: The impact of enrollment pathways and milestones on community college student outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 48, 775-801. doi:10.1007/s11162-007-9053-8

No DOI assigned

Reif, A., & Gaulin, L. (2010). Best practices for a reduction in force: A basic checklist. Employee Relations Law Journal, 35(5), 38-41. Retrieved from

Hoffman, C. B. & Rowland, D. (2007). Covering America's uninsured. American Journal of Nursing, 104(4), 75-79. 

Albright, T.L. & Burge, S.K. (2003). Improving firearm storage habits: Impact of brief office counseling by family physicians. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 16(1), 40-46. Retrieved from

If no DOI is assigned to the content and you retrieved it online, include the home page for the journal, newsletter, or magazine. Use this format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx (p. 198, APA 6th ed.)

Magazine Articles

Magazine Article

Lowry, R. (2007, December). Cut from the same cloth. National Review, 59(22), 34-36.

Online Magazine Article

Lowry, R. (2007, December). Cut from the same cloth. National Review, 59(22). Retrieved from

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper article

Pesquera, A. (2007, December 6). Small businesses learn, network at conference. San Antonio Express-News, p. 2E.

Online Newspaper article

Dillon, S. (2008, February 27). Survey finds teenagers ignorant on basic history and literature questions. The New York Times. Retrieved from


Print Book

Solso, R. L. (2003). The psychology of art and the evolution of the conscious brain. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.


Electronic /eBooks of print book

Thorne, K. (2007). Essential creativity in the classroom: Inspiring kids. Retrieved from

Book chapter from electronic books

Byrne, A. (2004). What phenomenal consciousness is like. In R.C. Gennaro (Ed.), Higher-order theories of consciousness: An anthology (pp. 203-225). Retrieved from

Dissertation from a database

Weitz, S.A. (2007). Bourbon, pork chops, and red peppers: Political immorality in Florida, 1945—1968 (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (AAT 3263791)

ERIC Document

Andrews, S.E. (2007). The impact of modeling upon preservice teachers in a content area reading course. Retrieved from ERIC database. ( ED499388)


Report from nongovernmental organization, publisher as author

Food Bank for New York City.  (2009). NYC Hunger Experience 2009. Retrieved from

Annual Report

Anheuser-Busch Companies. (2006). Brewing our future: 2006 annual report. Retrieved from

Article on Web site

Pons, M. (2002). School vouchers: The emerging track record. National Education Association. Retrieved from

Article on Web site no author or date

Voucher. (n.d.). National Education Association. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from

Video blog post

Greig, T. (2007, November 18). Bibliographic instruction business card stickers. [Video file]. Retrieved from